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Comprehensive Guide on How to Calculate Business Debt Correctly

Business debt is an integral part of various enterprises. Most companies rely on loans and debt to finance growth, working capital, and investments. However, managing and calculating business debt correctly is crucial.

In this article, we will discuss how to calculate business debt accurately. You will understand the importance of prudent debt management and strategies to keep your business finances healthy.

The Importance of Calculating Business Debt

Business Debt

Calculating business debt is not just about numerical calculations; it’s also about identifying why the debt is needed and how it will impact your business. Business debt can provide various benefits, such as:

  • Additional Capital: Helps finance business expansion or investment in new technology.
  • Cash Flow Management: Assists in balancing your company’s cash flow in specific situations.
  • Leverage: Enhances the company’s purchasing power and optimizes the return on invested capital.

However, taking on debt also entails certain risks, such as interest, payment deadlines, and changes in market conditions. Therefore, understanding how to calculate business debt is a crucial first step in your business’s financial management.

Types of Business Debt

Business debt is a crucial part of managing a company’s finances. The types of business debt can vary, depending on the financing sources used and their intended purposes. To delve deeper, here are some common types of business debt used by companies:

1. Short-Term Debt

Short-term debt is a type of debt that must be repaid in less than one year. Typically, this includes payments to suppliers, short-term bank loans, and other debts due within a short period.

To calculate short-term business debt, add up all obligations due within one year. This includes bills from suppliers, short-term loans, and tax bills due within the year.

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2. Long-Term Debt

Long-term debt is a type of debt due in more than one year. This includes long-term loans, corporate bonds, and other long-term debts.

To calculate long-term business debt, add up all obligations due in more than one year, such as long-term loans and corporate bonds.

3. Leasing Debt

Leasing debt arises when a company uses equipment or assets owned by a third party through a long-term lease agreement. This debt can be short-term or long-term, depending on the lease term. To calculate leasing business debt, determine the total lease value to be paid during the lease agreement period.

4. Mortgage Debt

Mortgage debt is a type of debt secured by physical assets, such as property or land. Usually, this falls under long-term debt. To calculate mortgage business debt, calculate the outstanding balance of the unpaid mortgage loan.

5. Unmatured Debt

Unmatured debt is a type of debt without a definite maturity date. This includes debt to shareholders or business owners that has not been settled. Unmatured debt does not have a precise calculation because maturity and payment terms are usually determined by agreements between the debtor and the business owner.

Business Debt

Business Debt Management Strategies

Effective business debt management strategies are key elements in maintaining financial stability and business growth. In a competitive business world, companies need to understand how to manage their debt wisely to avoid potentially detrimental financial risks. Here are some strategies to help you manage business debt effectively:

1. Evaluate Debt Needs

Before taking on additional debt, carefully consider whether you truly need it. Questions to answer include whether the debt will be used for business growth, purchasing assets that enhance productivity, or paying off other more expensive debts.

To calculate business debt, determine the amount of debt needed. Calculate precisely how much is required for specific purposes.

2. Plan Debt Structure

After determining that debt is necessary, consider the debt structure that best suits your company. This includes deciding whether short-term or long-term debt is more suitable and whether you will choose fixed or floating interest rate debt.

To calculate business debt, consider the applicable interest rate on the debt you are considering. This will affect your loan costs.

3. Manage Debt Prudently

It’s essential to manage debt diligently. This includes timely payments and maintaining accurate debt records. Payment delays can result in additional interest and can harm the company’s reputation.

To calculate business debt, always update your debt records and ensure timely payments to avoid accumulating interest.

Business Debt

4. Diversify Funding Sources

Diversifying funding sources is a wise strategy. Do not overly rely on a single funding source. This can help reduce financial risk associated with interest rate fluctuations or market conditions.

To calculate business debt, consider how much debt comes from different sources, and consider possible variations in interest rates.

5. Monitor Financial Performance

Certainly, regularly monitor your company’s financial performance. This will help you identify potential problems earlier and make necessary adjustments.

To calculate business debt, pay attention to the comparison between the amount of debt and the company’s income and profitability to ensure that debt does not exceed the company’s repayment capacity.


In business, wise business debt management is the key to sustainability and growth. Understanding how to calculate business debt correctly is the first step in achieving these goals. Staying focused on financial goals, risks, and debt management strategies will help keep your business healthy and productive.

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EN CTA 4So, always remember, knowing how to calculate business debt is one of the essential skills that a wise business owner should possess. With a profound understanding of business debt, you can make informed decisions and plan for successful business growth.

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