Objectives, Stages, Strategies, Requirements, and Characteristics of Negotiation

Objectives, Stages, Strategies, Requirements, and Characteristics of Negotiation

Negotiation, as a form of communication, is inseparable from everyday life and is carried out by society. Negotiations can occur in various activities such as business, politics, and other aspects of life.

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Almost everyone has negotiated at some point, whether informally or formally. Negotiations are conducted to achieve desired objectives.

Objectives of Negotiation

Objectives, Stages, Strategies, Requirements, and Characteristics of Negotiation

1. Minimizing differences and conflicts

Negotiations inevitably create conflicts and differences among parties, which are common occurrences. Negotiations are efforts to resolve these conflicts and differences.

The purpose of negotiations is to minimize differences and conflicts, requiring the parties involved to understand each other’s positions. Try to understand the issues and needs required by the other party.

2. Achieving mutual agreements

Negotiations have another objective of achieving mutual agreements, and the negotiating parties must express their opinions. Achieving mutual agreements is done optimally when all parties involved in the negotiation are open with each other.

Therefore, the parties involved in the negotiation must feel that they need each other because conflicts will arise during the process to achieve certain goals. However, once an agreement is reached, conflicts must be resolved together.

3. Mutual benefit between parties

Negotiating activities are not only useful for achieving mutual agreements and minimizing conflicts. There is an important aspect to be considered in negotiating activities, which is mutual benefit between parties.

The objective of negotiations is for the participating parties to mutually benefit from the negotiation process, which can only be achieved when negotiations reach a point of finding a win-win solution. To achieve this, resolving differences to reach mutual agreements should be the primary goal.

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Stages of Negotiation

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1. Planning and preparation

In this first stage, planning and preparation are necessary. The process involves gathering data needed to support the negotiation.

The goal is to support each party’s position during negotiations. When presenting an argument to support a position, it must be done wisely.

2. Establishing rules

At this stage, it is important to establish rules to be applied in the negotiation. In the process, individuals need to determine the rules and outlines for the negotiation activities.

The purpose of rules is to determine what needs to be negotiated. Therefore, the topics to be discussed should not deviate from the negotiation rules established beforehand.

3. Explanation

The next stage involves the process of explanation. This stage requires each party to express their desires in the negotiation process.

Each party can provide clear explanations or present specific documentation. This is essential to support the positions of each involved party.

4. Bargaining and problem-solving

The next stage involves bargaining by the negotiating parties. Once bargaining is complete, the negotiation proceeds to solving the problems to be negotiated.

In this stage, all stakeholders must seek solutions to the negotiated issues. The involvement of all parties should be focused on the issues and interests at hand.

5. Conclusion and implementation

When entering the final stage of negotiation, all parties have agreed to the negotiation decisions and can implement them. In this stage, all key points negotiated together will be decided upon.

Therefore, several aspects need to be considered, such as agreed-upon documents, reviewing all main points to avoid misunderstandings, clearly outlining all decisions made during the negotiation. Finally, each party will create written agreements and sign them.

Negotiation Strategies

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1. Outrageous behavior

One negotiation strategy is outrageous behavior or insults. Although this strategy is very effective, it is also easier to violate business ethics because it can create tension and sever relationships among the parties involved.

2. The wince

One negotiation strategy involves frowning or the wince. This strategy is highly effective in expressing dissatisfaction with offers made by the other party.

Using this strategy is persuasive because it opens up opportunities for further negotiation without direct confrontation.

3. The silence

A negotiation strategy that can be used is the silence. By using this technique, a person can show their dissatisfaction by remaining silent for an extended period.

This indirect approach can create pressure. The silence creates an uncomfortable atmosphere in the negotiation forum.

4. Walking out

Walking out is another form of negotiation strategy that can be applied. Using this strategy allows one party to pretend to leave to exert pressure on the other party or parties involved in the negotiation.

This strategy is usually employed when the other party feels that the outcome of the decision is less advantageous or when it is difficult to find a fair solution. By taking this action, it is hoped that the issues can be discussed again to reach a mutual agreement.

5. The trade-off

The trade-off is a negotiation strategy involving exchanges that benefit each party. With this negotiation strategy, all parties can offer something valuable rather than making new decisions.

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Requirements and Characteristics of Negotiation

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When bargaining, there are requirements that need to be met. These requirements determine whether the activity can be considered a negotiation or not.

The first requirement is that there must be two or more parties involved in the negotiation process. If there is only one party involved, the negotiation cannot take place.

Not only can requirements be met, negotiations can also be identified by several characteristics as follows:

  • The issues to be negotiated have similar themes
  • Involves parties such as sellers and buyers
  • Both parties have the same goal, which is to make abstract issues concrete
  • There is cooperation from both parties involved in the negotiation.

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